Type 3 Conditional

Bentuk

Dalam kalimat type 3 conditional, tense dalam klausa if adalah past perfect dan tense dalam klausa utama adalah perfect conditional atau perfect continuous conditional.

Klausa if (kondisi) Klausa utama (hasil/akibat)
If + past perfect perfect conditional atau perfect continuous conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would have happened.

Sama seperti dalam semua kalimat conditional, urutan klausa tidaklah tetap. Anda mungkin harus menyesuaikan kata ganti (pronoun) dan tanda baca saat mengubah urutan klausa, tetapi artinya sama.

Contoh
  • If it had rained, you would have gotten wet.
  • You would have gotten wet if it had rained.
  • You would have passed your exam if you had worked harder.
  • If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam.
  • I would have believed you if you hadn't lied to me before.
  • If you hadn't lied to me before, I would have believed you.

Fungsi

Type 3 conditional merujuk ke kondisi tidak mungkin di masa lalu dan kemungkinan hasilnya di masa lalu. Kalimat-kalimat ini benar-benar merupakan pengandaian dan tidak nyata karena sudah terlambat untuk dilakukan sekarang dan hasilnya sudah tidak mungkin terjadi. Selalu ada implikasi penyesalan dalam kalimat type 3 conditional. Kenyataannya merupakan kebalikan dari yang dinyatakan oleh kalimat. Dalam kalimat type 3 conditional, waktunya adalah masa lalu dan situasinya merupakan pengandaian atau tidak nyata.

Contoh
  • If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam. (Tetapi, saya tidak bekerja keras dan saya tidak lulus ujian.)
  • If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake. (Tetapi, saya tidak tahu dan saya tidak memanggang kue.)
  • I would have been happy if you had called me on my birthday. (Tetapi, Anda tidak menelepon saya dan saya tidak senang.)

Dalam kalimat type 3 conditional, Anda juga dapat menggunakan modal dalam klausa utama dan bukan would untuk menyatakan tingkat kepastian, izin, atau rekomendasi mengenai hasil atau akibat akhir.

Contoh
  • If I had worked harder I might have passed the exam.
  • You could have been on time if you had caught the bus.
  • If he called you, you could go.
  • If you bought my school supplies for me, I might be able to go to the park.
Contraction

Baik would dan had dapat disingkat menjadi 'd, yang mungkin membingungkan jika Anda tidak yakin menggunakan kalimat type 3 conditional. Ingatlah 2 aturan:

1. Would tidak pernah muncul dalam klausa if, sehingga jika 'd muncul dalam klausa if, pasti itu adalah singkatan dari had.
2. Had tidak pernah muncul sebelum have, sehingga jika 'd muncul di depan kata ganti (pronoun) tepat sebelum have, pasti itu adalah singkatan dari would.

Contoh
  • If I'd known you were in hospital, I'd have visited you.
  • If I had known you were in hospital, I would have visited you.
  • I'd have bought you a present if I'd known it was your birthday.
  • I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday.
  • If you'd given me your e-mail, I'd have written to you.
  • If you had given me your e-mail, I would have written to you.

Perfect conditional tense

Perfect conditional dari kata kerja apa pun terdiri dari tiga unsur:
would + have + past participle
Have yang diikuti oleh past participle juga digunakan dalam pola lain. Pola ini disebut "perfect infinitive".

Subjek + would + have + past participle
He would have gone
They would have stayed
To Go: perfect conditional
Positif Negatif Pertanyaan Pertanyaan Negatif
I would have gone I wouldn't have gone Would I have gone? Wouldn't I have gone?
You would have gone You wouldn't have gone Would you have gone? Wouldn't you have gone?
He would have gone He wouldn't have gone Would he have gone? Wouldn't he have gone?
She would have gone She wouldn't have gone Would she have gone? Wouldn't she have gone?
We would have gone We wouldn't have gone Would we have gone? Wouldn't we have gone?
They would have gone They wouldn't have gone Would they have gone? Wouldn't they have gone?