Adverb of Degree

Adverb of degree atau keterangan tingkatan memberi tahu kita tentang intensitas sesuatu. Keterangan tingkatan biasanya diletakkan sebelum kata sifat, kata keterangan, atau kata kerja yang dimodifikasi oleh keterangan tingkatan tersebut meskipun ada beberapa pengecualian. Kata too, enough, very, dan extremely adalah contoh-contoh keterangan tingkatan.

Keterangan tingkatan Memodifikasi Contoh
extremely kata sifat The water was extremely cold.
quite kata sifat The movie is quite interesting.
just kata kerja He was just leaving.
almost kata kerja She has almost finished.
very kata keterangan She is running very fast.
too kata keterangan You are walking too slowly.
enough kata keterangan You are running fast enough.

Penggunaan Enough

Enough dapat digunakan sebagai kata keterangan maupun kata sandang.

Enough sebagai kata keterangan

Enough sebagai kata keterangan, yang berarti "hingga tingkatan yang diperlukan", diletakkan setelah kata sifat atau kata keterangan yang dimodifikasi, dan bukan sebelum kata sifat seperti kata keterangan lainnya. Enough dapat digunakan dalam kalimat positif dan negatif.

Contoh
  • Is your coffee hot enough?
  • This box isn't big enough.
  • He didn't work hard enough.
  • I got here early enough.

Enough sering diikuti oleh to + infinitive.

Contoh
  • He didn't work hard enough to pass the exam.
  • Is your coffee hot enough to drink?
  • She's not old enough to get married.
  • I got here early enough to sign up.

Enough juga dapat diikuti oleh for + seseorang atau for + sesuatu.

Contoh
  • The dress was big enough for me.
  • She's not experienced enough for this job.
  • Is the coffee hot enough for you?
  • He didn't work hard enough for a promotion.
Enough sebagai kata sandang

Enough sebagai kata sandang, yang berarti "sebanyak yang diperlukan", diletakkan sebelum kata benda yang dimodifikasi. Kata ini digunakan bersama kata benda yang dapat dihitung (dalam bentuk jamak) dan kata benda yang tidak dapat dihitung.

Contoh
  • We have enough bread.
  • You have enough children.
  • They don't have enough food.
  • I don't have enough apples.

Penggunaan too

Too selalu merupakan kata keterangan, tetapi memiliki dua arti yang berbeda, masing-masing dengan pola penggunaan tersendiri.

Too yang berarti "juga"

Too sebagai kata keterangan yang berarti "juga" diletakkan di akhir frasa yang dimodifikasi oleh too.

Contoh
  • I would like to go swimming too, if you will let me come.
  • Can I go to the zoo too?
  • Is this gift for me too?
  • I'm not going to clean your room too!
Too yang berarti "terlalu"

Too sebagai kata keterangan yang berarti "terlalu" diletakkan sebelum kata sifat atau kata keterangan yang dimodifikasi oleh too. Kata ini dapat digunakan dalam kalimat positif dan negatif.

Contoh
  • This coffee is too hot.
  • He works too hard.
  • Isn't she too young?
  • I am not too short!

Too sering diikuti oleh to + infinitive.

Contoh
  • The coffee was too hot to drink.
  • You're too young to have grandchildren!
  • I am not too tired to go out tonight.
  • Don't you work too hard to have any free time?

Too juga dapat diikuti oleh for + seseorang atau for + sesuatu.

Contoh
  • The coffee was too hot for me.
  • The dress was too small for her.
  • He's not too old for this job.
  • Sally's not too slow for our team.

Penggunaan very

Very diletakkan sebelum kata keterangan atau kata sifat untuk membuatnya lebih kuat.

Contoh
  • The girl was very beautiful.
  • The house is very expensive.
  • He worked very quickly.
  • She runs very fast.

Jika ingin membuat bentuk negatif dari kata sifat atau keterangan, kita bisa menambahkan not ke kata kerja, menggunakan kata sifat atau keterangan dengan arti yang berlawanan, atau menggunakan not very dengan kata sifat atau keterangan awalnya. Arti dari ketiga frasa ini tidaklah sama. Biasanya, frasa yang menggunakan not very tidak terlalu lugas, sehingga lebih sopan dibandingkan dengan frasa-frasa lainnya.

Contoh
Frasa awal Arti sebaliknya dengan not Arti sebaliknya dengan not very Arti sebaliknya dengan lawan kata
The girl was beautiful. The girl was not beautiful. The girl was not very beautiful. The girl was ugly.
He worked quickly. He did not work quickly. He did not work very quickly. He worked slowly.
Perbedaan arti antara very dan too

Ada perbedaan arti yang besar antara too dan very. Very menyatakan fakta, sedangkan too menunjukkan bahwa ada suatu masalah.

Contoh
  • He speaks very quickly.
  • He speaks too quickly for me to understand.
  • It is very hot outside.
  • It is too hot outside to go for a walk.
Kata keterangan lain yang digunakan mirip seperti very

Beberapa kata keterangan umum digunakan mirip seperti very untuk menaikkan tingkatan kata sifat dan keterangan.

Menyatakan perasaan yang sangat kuat Menyatakan perasaan yang kuat Menyatakan perasaan yang agak ragu
extremely, terribly, amazingly, wonderfully, insanely especially, particularly, uncommonly, unusually, remarkably, quite pretty, rather, fairly, not especially, not particularly
The movie was amazingly interesting. The movie was particularly interesting. The movie was fairly interesting.
She sang wonderfully well. She sang unusually well. She sang pretty well.
The lecture was terribly boring. The lecture was quite boring. The lecture was rather boring.

Inversi dengan kata keterangan negatif

Umumnya, subjek diletakkan sebelum kata kerja. Namun, beberapa kata keterangan negatif dapat menyebabkan inversi ketika diletakkan di awal klausa. Urutannya menjadi terbalik dan kata kerja diletakkan sebelum subjek. Inversi atau pembalikan ini hanya digunakan dalam tulisan, tidak dalam percakapan.

Kata keterangan Urutan kata normal Inversi
Never I have never seen such courage. Never have I seen such courage.
Rarely She rarely left the house. Rarely did she leave the house.
Not only She did not only the cooking but the cleaning as well. Not only did she do the cooking, but the cleaning as well.
Scarcely I scarcely closed the door before he started talking. Scarcely did I close the door before he started talking.
Seldom We seldom cross the river after sunset. Seldom do we cross the river sunset.