Infinitive

Membentuk infinitive

Infinitive adalah kata dasar dari suatu kata kerja. Dalam bahasa Inggris, saat kita membicarakan infinitive, kita biasanya merujuk ke present infinitive yang paling umum. Namun, sebenarnya ada empat bentuk lain dari infinitive: perfect infinitive, perfect continuous infinitive, continuous infinitive, dan passive infinitive.

Present infinitive memiliki dua bentuk:

  • to-infinitive = to + kata dasar
  • zero infinitive = kata dasar

Kata dasar dari present infinitive adalah kata kerja yang akan Anda temukan dalam kamus.

To-infinitive Zero infinitive
to sit sit
to eat eat
to have have
to remember remember

Negative infinitive dibentuk dengan meletakkan not di depan bentuk infinitive apa pun.

Contoh
  • I decided not to go to London.
  • He asked me not to be late.
  • I'd like you not to sing so loudly.
  • I'd rather not eat meat.
  • I might not come.

Fungsi dari to-infinitive

To-infinitive digunakan dalam banyak pola kalimat, sering kali menyatakan tujuan dari sesuatu atau pendapat seseorang tentang sesuatu. To-infinitive digunakan setelah berbagai macam kata kerja yang berbeda. Bacalah halaman tentang kata kerja yang diikuti infinitive ini.

To-infinitive untuk menyatakan tujuan dari suatu tindakan

Dalam hal ini, to memiliki arti yang sama seperti in order to atau so as to.

Contoh
  • She came to collect her pay cheque.
  • The three bears went to find firewood.
  • I am calling to ask you about dad.
  • You sister has gone to finish her homework.
To-infinitive sebagai subjek kalimat

Ini adalah penggunaan formal dan jauh lebih sering digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris tertulis daripada lisan.

Contoh
  • To be or not to be, that is the question.
  • To know her is to love her.
  • To visit the Grand Canyon is my life-long dream.
  • To understand statistics, that is our aim.
To-infinitive untuk menyatakan kegunaan dari sesuatu

Dalam pola ini, to-infinitive mengikuti kata benda atau kata ganti (pronoun).

Contoh
  • The children need a garden to play in.
  • I would like a sandwich to eat.
  • I don't have anything to wear.
  • Would you like something to drink?
To-infinitive setelah adjective

Ada pola yang umum menggunakan to-infinitive dengan kata sifat. Frasa-frasa ini dibentuk dengan pola:
subjek + to be + kata sifat (adjective) + (for/of seseorang) + to-infinitive + (sisa kalimat)

Subjek + to be + kata sifat (+ for/of seseorang) + to-infinitive (+ sisa kalimat)
It is good   to talk.  
It is good of you to talk to me.
It is important   to be patient.  
It is important for Jake to be patient with his little brother.
I am happy   to be here.
The dog is naughty   to destroy our couch.
To-infinitive untuk memberikan komentar atau penilaian

Untuk menggunakan to-infinitive saat memberikan komentar atau penilaian tentang kata benda, polanya adalah:
Subjek + to be + frasa benda (noun phrase) + to-infinitive

Subjek + to be + frasa benda + to-infinitive
It was a stupid place to park.
That is a dangerous way to behave.
What you said was a rude thing to say.
This is the right thing to do.
Those were the wrong kind of eggs to buy.
Jim is the best person to hire.
To-infinitive dengan adverb

To-infinitive juga sering digunakan dengan kata keterangan (adverbtoo dan enough untuk menyatakan alasan di balik kepuasan atau ketidakpuasan kita. Polanya adalah too dan enough diletakkan sebelum atau sesudah kata sifat, kata keterangan, atau kata benda yang dimodifikasi dengan cara yang sama tanpa to-infinitive. Lalu, kita meletakkan to-infinitive setelahnya untuk menjelaskan alasan mengapa jumlahnya berlebihan, cukup, atau kurang. Biasanya, to-infinitive dan semua yang mengikutinya dapat dihilangkan, meninggalkan kalimat yang masih memiliki tata bahasa yang baik.

Contoh
  • There's too much sugar to put in this bowl.
  • I had too many books to carry.
  • This soup is too hot to eat.
  • She was too tired to work.
  • He arrived too late to see the actors.
  • I've had enough food to eat.
  • She's old enough to make up her own mind.
  • There isn't enough snow to ski on.
  • You're not old enough to have grand-children!
To-infinitive dengan question word

Kata kerja (verbask, decide, explain, forget, know, show, tell, dan understand dapat diikuti oleh question word seperti where, how, what, who, dan when + to-infinitive.

Contoh
  • She asked me how to use the washing machine.
  • Do you understand what to do?
  • Tell me when to press the button.
  • I've forgotten where to put this little screw.
  • I'm not sure I know who to call.

Fungsi dari zero infinitive

Zero infinitive setelah auxiliary
Contoh
  • She can't speak to you.
  • He should give her some money.
  • Shall I talk to him?
  • Would you like a cup of coffee?
  • I might stay another night in the hotel.
  • They must leave before 10.00 a.m.
Zero infinitive setelah kata kerja yang berkaitan dengan indera

Untuk kata kerja yang berkaitan dengan indera, polanya adalah kata kerja + objek + zero infinitive.

Contoh
  • He saw her fall from the cliff.
  • We heard them close the door.
  • They saw us walk toward the lake.
  • She felt the spider crawl up her leg.
Zero infinitive setelah kata kerja 'make' dan 'let'
Contoh
  • Her parents let her stay out late.
  • Let's go to the cinema tonight.
  • You made me come with you.
  • Don't make me study that boring grammar book!
Zero infinitive setelah ekspresi 'had better'
Contoh
  • We had better take some warm clothing.
  • She had better ask him not to come.
  • We had better reserve a room in the hotel.
  • You'd better give me your address.
  • They had better work harder on their homework.
Zero infinitive dengan "why"

Question word why diikuti oleh zero infinitive saat memberikan saran.

Contoh
  • Why wait until tomorrow?
  • Why not ask him now?
  • Why leave before the end of the game?
  • Why walk when we can go in the car?
  • Why not buy a new bed?