Gerund

Gerund terlihat sama persis seperti present participle, tetapi sebaiknya Anda memahami perbedaan keduanya. Gerund selalu memiliki fungsi yang sama seperti kata benda (meskipun terlihat seperti kata kerja). Beberapa penggunaan gerund dibahas di halaman ini. Ada halaman terpisah yang membahas tentang kata kerja yang diikuti oleh gerund.

Gerund sebagai subjek kalimat
Contoh
  • Eating people is wrong.
  • Hunting tigers is dangerous.
  • Flying makes me nervous.
  • Brushing your teeth is important.
  • Smoking causes lung cancer.
Gerund sebagai komplemen atau pelengkap kata kerja to be
Contoh
  • One of his duties is attending meetings.
  • The hardest thing about learning English is understanding the gerund.
  • One of life's pleasures is having breakfast in bed.
Gerund setelah preposisi

Gerund harus digunakan saat kata kerja diletakkan setelah preposisi. Hal ini juga berlaku untuk beberapa ekspresi tertentu yang berakhir dengan preposisi, misalnya in spite of dan there's no point in.

Contoh
  • Can you sneeze without opening your mouth?
  • She is good at painting.
  • She avoided him by walking on the opposite side of the road.
  • We arrived in Madrid after driving all night.
  • My father decided against postponing his trip to Hungary.
  • There's no point in waiting.
  • In spite of missing the train, we arrived on time.
Gerund setelah phrasal verb

Kata kerja frasa atau phrasal verb tersusun dari kata kerja + preposisi atau kata keterangan.

Contoh
  • When will you give up smoking?
  • She always puts off going to the dentist.
  • He kept on asking for money.
  • Jim ended up buying a new TV after his old one broke.

Ada beberapa phrasal verb yang menyertakan kata to sebagai preposisi, seperti to look forward to, to take to, to be accustomed to, to get around to, dan to be used to. Anda dapat memeriksa apakah to adalah preposisi atau bagian dari infinitive. Jika Anda dapat meletakkan kata ganti it setelah kata to dan membentuk kalimat yang bermakna, kata to adalah preposisi dan harus diikuti oleh gerund.

Contoh
  • I look forward to hearing from you soon.
  • I look forward to it.
  • I am used to waiting for buses.
  • I am used to it.
  • She didn't really take to studying English.
  • She didn't really take to it.
  • When will you get around to mowing the grass?
  • When will you get around to it?
Gerund dalam kata benda majemuk

Untuk kata benda majemuk yang menggunakan gerund, sudah jelas bahwa artinya adalah kata benda, bukan kata kerja continuous. Misalnya, kata swimming pool berarti kolam untuk berenang, bukan kolam yang sedang berenang.

Contoh
  • I am giving Sally a driving lesson.
  • They have a swimming pool in their back yard.
  • I bought some new running shoes.
Gerund setelah beberapa ekspresi

Gerund harus digunakan setelah ekspresi can't help, can't stand, to be worth, dan it's no use.

Contoh
  • She couldn't help falling in love with him.
  • I can't stand being stuck in traffic jams.
  • It's no use trying to escape.
  • It might be worth phoning the station to check the time of the train.