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belajar menguasai tenses bahasa Inggris
Grammar and Vocabulary

Tips Menguasai 16 Tenses Bahasa Inggris

grammartips belajar16 tenses
2021.03.02

Apakah kamu pernah merasa bingung saat belajar Tata Bahasa Bahasa Inggris (English Grammar), terutama dengan Tenses Bahasa Inggris (English Tenses)? Tenses sendiri adalah sebuah konsep yang menerangkan waktu kejadian dari sebuah pernyataan.

Bagi kita yang bukan penutur asli bahasa Inggris, memang ke-16 tenses bahasa Inggris dapat menjadi hal yang sulit untuk dipahami. Ada banyak peraturan dan juga pengecualian dalam tenses bahasa Inggris. Nah, cara utama untuk menguasai tenses adalah dengan memahami rumusnya, dan kapan kondisinya harus digunakan.

Terdapat 16 Tenses utama yang bisa kamu pelajari.Berikut adalah rangkuman dari ke-16 Tenses Bahasa Inggris dan tips belajar bahasa Inggris untuk menguasainya, serta contoh latihan yang bisa kamu kerjakan.

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Simple Present Tense

Simple present tense adalah bentuk tense yang paling umum digunakan. Bentuk ini biasanya digunakan untuk menunjukan fakta, kebiasaan, dan kejadian yang terjadi pada saat ini.

Rumus

Subject + Verb 1 (present form)

Kata Sinyal

always, every, never, normally, often, sometimes, usually, seldom

Kalimat Positif

He always works very hard in the company.

Kalimat Negatif

He does not work very hard in the company.

Kalimat Tanya

Does he work very hard in the company?
Yes, he does. / No, he does not.

Contoh soal:

  1. Positive: Tifa has a very good record at boxing.
    Negative: Tifa ..... a very good record at boxing.

    Which one is the correct answer?

    a. doesn't has
    b. hasn't
    c. haven't
    d. doesn't have

  2. Interrogative: Do you think he can do it all alone?
    Negative:

    Which one is the correct answer?

    a. He don't think you can do it all alone.
    b. He doesn't think you can do it all alone.
    c. I don't think he can do it all alone.
    d. Don't you think he can do it all alone.

Present Continuous Tense

Present continuous tense biasanya digunakan untuk membicarakan aksi yang sedang berlangsung saat pembicaraan sedang berlangsung atau bisa juga digunakan untuk rencana di masa depan.

Rumus

Subject + am/is/are + Verb -ing (continuous form)

Kata Sinyal

at the moment, just now, now, right now, Listen!, Look!

Kalimat Positif

Look! He is talking with his classmates.

Kalimat Negatif

He is not playing computer games now.

Kalimat Tanya

Is he playing computer games at the moment?
Yes, he is. / No, he is not.

Contoh soal:

  1. Positive: Mom is chopping vegetables in the kitchen.
    Interrogative:

    Which one is the correct answer?

    a. Is Mom chopping vegetables in the kitchen?
    b. Are Mom chopping vegetables in the kitchen?
    c. Does Mom chopping vegetables in the kitchen?
    d. Do Mom chopping vegetables in the kitchen?

  2. Negative: I'm not angry with him.
    Interrogative:

    Which one is the correct answer?

    a. Do I angry with him?
    b. Are you angry with him?
    c. Do you angry with him?
    d. Have you angry with him?

Present Perfect Tense

Present perfect tense menekankan pada hasil. Tense ini menunjukkan aksi yang masih sedang berlangsung atau baru saja selesai.

Rumus

Subject + has/have+ Verb III (past participle form)

Kata Sinyal

already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now

Kalimat Positif

He has already finished his homework.

Kalimat Negatif

He has not been to Australia so far.

Kalimat Tanya

Has he completed the arrangement for the coming event up to now?
Yes, he has. / No, he has not.

Contoh soal:

  1. Positive: I have worked on this task for the last 3 hours.
    Interrogative:

    Which one is the correct answer?

    a. Have you working on this task for the last 3 hours?
    b. Are you working on this task for the last 3 hours?
    c. Have you been worked this task for the last 3 hours?
    d. Have you worked on this task for the last 3 hours?

  2. Negative: She hasn't visited her mother this month.
    Interrogative:

    Which one is the correct answer?

    a. Does she have visited her mother this month?
    b. Has she visited her mother this month?
    c. Have she visited her mother this month?
    d. Is she visiting her mother this month?

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Present perfect continuous tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan aksi yang telah selesai pada suatu titik dimasa lampau atau aksi telah dimulai di masa lalu dan terus berlanjut sampai sekarang. Biasanya aksi tersebut ada durasi waktu tertentu dan ada relevansinya dengan kondisi sekarang.

Rumus

Subject + HAS/HAVE + BEEN + Verb -ing (continuous form)

Kata Sinyal

for the past 5 years, how long …?, the whole week, since xxxx

Kalimat Positif

He has been working here since 1996.

Kalimat Negatif

He has not been speaking for the last 3 hours.

Kalimat Tanya

Has he been playing the computer game all day?
Yes, he has. / No, he has not.

Contoh soal:

  1. Interrogative: Have you been doing the same business for 3 years?
    Positive:

    Which one is the correct answer?

    a. I have been doing the same business for 3 years.
    b. I had been done the same business for 3 years.
    c. I am doing the same business for 3 years.
    d. I have doing the same business for 3 years.

  2. Negative: She has been asking the same questions since 10 minutes ago.
    Interrogative:

    Which one is the correct answer?

    a. Has she been asking the same questions since 10 minutes ago?
    b. Does she have asked the same questions since 10 minutes ago?
    c. Does she ask the same questions since 10 minutes ago?
    d. Have she asked the same questions since 10 minutes ago?

Simple Past Tense

Simple past tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu kejadian yang terjadi di masa lampau.

Rumus

Subject + Verb II (past form)

Kata Sinyal

yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1996, last Thursday, this morning

Kalimat Positif

Last year, he always worked until night.

Kalimat Negatif

He did not go to school this morning.

Kalimat Tanya

Did he pay the bill yesterday?
Yes, he did. / No, he did not.

Contoh soal:

  1. Positive: He realized that he had to do better.
    Interrogative:

    Which one is the correct answer?

    a. Did he realize that he had to do better?
    b. Does he realize that he had to do better?
    c. Had he realize that he had to do better?
    d. Did he realized that he had to do better?

  2. Negative: I didn't know him that well before.
    Interrogative:

    Which one is the correct answer?

    a. Did you know him that well before?
    b. Do you know him that well before?
    c. Are you know him that well before?
    d. Did you knew him that well before?

Past Continuous Tense

Past continuous tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan bahwa suatu aksi sedang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau. Biasanya ada dua kejadian di masa lampau dan satu kejadian menginterupsi kejadian yang lain. Kejadian yang sedang diinterupsi tersebut yang menggunakan past continuous tense.

Rumus

Subject + WAS/WERE + Verb -ing (continuous form)

Kata Sinyal

when, while, as long as, at this time yesterday

Kalimat Positif

He was speaking when I entered in room.

Kalimat Negatif

He was not doing his homework at this time yesterday.

Kalimat Tanya

Was he writing the letter to his parents when I was out last Tuesday?
Yes, he was. / No, he was not.

Contoh soal:

  1. Interrogative: Was I listening to the music when Mom came to my room?
    Negative:


    Which one is the correct answer?

    a. I wasn't listening to the music when Mom came to my room.
    b. I didn't listening to the music when Mom comes to my room.
    c. I was listening to the music when Mom was coming to my room.
    d. I was listened to the music when Mom was coming to my room.

  2. Positive: You were playing football at 5 PM the day before.
    Interrogative:

    Which one is the correct answer?

    a. Were you played football at 5 PM the day before?
    b. Were you playing football at 5 PM the day before?
    c. Were you play football at 5 PM the day before?
    d. Were you being played football at 5PM the day before?

Past Perfect Tense

Past perfect tense digunakan untuk menunjukkan sebuah kejadian yang terjadi sebelum waktu tertentu di masa lampau dan lebih menekankan pada fakta daripada durasi.

Rumus

Subject + HAD + Verb III (past participle form)

Kata Sinyal

before yesterday, till three days ago, already, until that day

Kalimat Positif

He had finished his designs before he went to work yesterday.

Kalimat Negatif

He had not been a high school student until last year.

Kalimat Tanya

Had he entered the company before he achieved his master degree in 1990?
Yes, he had. / No, he had not.

Contoh soal:

  1. Positive: We had worked together before one of us got married.
    Interrogative:

    Which one is the correct answer?

    a. Had we work together before one of us got married?
    b. Had we worked together before one of us got married
    c. Did we work together before one of us got married?
    d. Did we worked together before one of us got married?

  2. Negative: I hadn't finished the homework when you called me the night before.
    Positive:

    Which one is the correct answer?

    a. I had finish the homework when you called me the night before.
    b. I had finished the homework when you called me the night before.
    c. I finished the homework when you had called me the night before.
    d. I had been finishing the homework when you called me the night before.

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past perfect continuous tense hampir serupa dengan past perfect tense. Digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu aksi yang terjadi di masa lalu dan telah selesai pada suatu titik waktu tertentu di masa lalu, tapi tense ini menekankan pada durasi kejadiannya.

Rumus

Subject + HAD + BEEN + Verb -ing (continuous form)

Kata Sinyal

for, since, the whole day, all day

Kalimat Positif

He said that he had been working here for ten years.

Kalimat Negatif

He was told that his teacher had been waiting for him since 2 p.m yesterday.

Kalimat Tanya

Had he been speaking for the whole class before I entered?
Yes, he had. / No, he had not.

Contoh soal:

  1. Positive: My friend said he had been exploring the country in his twenties.
    Interrogative:

    Which one is the correct answer?

    a. Did your friend explore the country in his twenties?
    b. Had he exploring the country in his twenties?
    c. Had your friend been exploring the country in his twenties?
    d. Did your friend explored the country in his twenties?

  2. Negative: My coworker was told that he hadn't been doing a great job.
    Interrogative:

    Which one is the correct answer?

    a. Did you been doing a great job?
    b. Had he been doing a great job?
    c. Did your coworker do a great job?
    d. Had your coworker do a great hob?

Simple Future Tense

Simple Future tense mengindikasikan suatu aksi di masa yang akan datang dan tidak dapat dipengaruhi. Dapat juga digunakan untuk pembuatan keputusan di masa depan yang spontan atau asumsi yang berhubungan dengan masa yang akan datang. “Will” dan “be going to” merupakan 2 indikator umum pada tenses ini.

Rumus

Subject + “WILL/ BE GOING TO” + Verb (present form)

Kata Sinyal

in a year, next …, tomorrow, next week, five days later

Kalimat Positif

He is going to be journalist after he graduate next year.

Kalimat Negatif

He will not play computer games anymore because he understand how harmful they are.

Kalimat Tanya

Will he go to the cinema tomorrow with us?
Yes, he will. / No, he will not.

Future Continuous Tense

Future continuous tense menunjukkan aksi yang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang dan aksi yang pasti akan terjadi dalam waktu dekat.

Rumus

Subject + “WILL/BE GOING TO” + “BE” + Verb (continuous form)

Kata Sinyal

tomorrow morning, in one year

Kalimat Positif

He will be delivering the speech to undergraduates at 3 p.m tomorrow afternoon.

Kalimat Negatif

He will not be doing the task in the office this afternoon because he is sick.

Kalimat Tanya

Will he be playing football next morning in the playground?
Yes, he will./ No, he will not.

Future Perfect Tense

Future perfect tense menekankan pada aksi yang sudah berakhir pada waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang.

Rumus

Subject + “WILL HAVE” + Verb III (past participle form)

Kata Sinyal

by next Monday, in a week

Kalimat Positif

He will have finished the task by next Monday.

Kalimat Negatif

He will not have finished the given task by tomorrow evening.

Kalimat Tanya

Will he have finished the task in a week?
Yes, he will./ No, he will not.

Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Hampir sama dengan semua jenis perfect continuous tense, future perfect continuous tense merupakan serangkaian aksi yang terjadi sebelum waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang.

Rumus

Subject + “WILL HAVE BEEN” + Verb-ing (continuous form)

Kata Sinyal

for the last couple of hours, all day long

Kalimat Positif

He will have been taking charge of the team for the next hour.

Kalimat Negatif

He will not have been doing the task for the last couple of hours.

Kalimat Tanya

Will he have been doing the research all day long?
Yes, he will./ No, he will not.

Past Future Tense

Past future tense pada dasarnya digunakan dalam kalimat yang tidak langsung, dimana terdapat perubahan bentuk untuk menyesuaikan dengan rangkaian peristiwa yang ada.

Rumus

Subject + WOULD + Verb (present form)
Subject + WAS/WERE + GOING TO + Verb (Present Form)

Kata Sinyal

Kalimat Positif

He said that he would leave in three days.

Kalimat Negatif

He did not promise that he would buy you a new computer.

Kalimat Tanya

Did you tell him when I would arrive?
Yes, I did. / No, I did not.

Past Future Continuous Tense

Past future continuous tense menekankan pada serangkaian atau durasi sebuah aksi terjadi. Sebagai tambahan, ini juga biasanya digunakan pada kalimat tidak langsung.

Rumus

Subject + “SHOULD/WOULD BE” + Verb-ing (continuous form)

Kata Sinyal

Kalimat Positif

I made a promise that I would be doing my homework all day long tomorrow.

Kalimat Negatif

I did not tell anyone that I would be giving a speech to undergraduates for the next whole morning.

Kalimat Tanya

Did you say that you would be working hard in the next week?
Yes, I did / No, I did not.

Past Future Perfect Tense

Terdapat 3 waktu dalam past future perfect yang terjadi di masa lalu. Menunjuk pada waktu yang akan datang, waktu tertentu di masa lalu, tetapi aksi yang terjadi harus sudah selesai sebelum waktu yang akan datang. Dan biasanya digunakan pada kalimat tidak langsung.

Rumus

Subject + SHOULD/WOULD HAVE + Verb III (past participle form)

Kata Sinyal

Kalimat Positif

He told the students that they should have finished the homework this morning.

Kalimat Negatif

He said that he would not have made such a mistake if he had taken my advice.

Kalimat Tanya

Did you say that you would have been a doctor in three years?
Yes, I did / No, I did not.

Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Past future perfect continuous tense merupakan bentuk tense yang cukup sulit. Namun, kamu dapat mempelajarinya dari past future perfect tense. Bedanya, past future perfect tense menekankan pada durasi waktu yang sudah berlalu dan hasil.

Rumus

Subject + WOULD HAVE BEEN + Verb -ing (continuous form)

Kata Sinyal

Kalimat Positif

I heard that you should have been teaching here for ten years by this July.

Kalimat Negatif

I did not know that he would have been working for the past three hours by that time.

Kalimat Tanya

Would he have been explaining to the workers if he had made the information clear?
Yes, he would / No, he would not.

Sekarang kamu mengerti 16 tenses dalam bahasa Inggris? Mungkin memang agak sulit untuk menghafal ke-16 Tenses ini. Namun apakah kamu tahu ada cara mudah untuk menguasai Grammar bahasa Inggris, termasuk Tenses?