Tips Menguasai 16 Tenses Bahasa Inggris

2016.11.03
Tips Menguasai 16 Tenses Bahasa Inggris

Apakah kamu bingung dengan Tata Bahasa Bahasa Inggris (English Grammar), terutama dengan Tenses Bahasa Inggris (English Tenses)???

Bagi kita yang bukan penutur asli Bahasa Inggris, memang ke-16 tenses Bahasa Inggris dapat menjadi hal yang sulit untuk dipahami. Ada banyak peraturan dan juga pengecualian dalam tenses Bahasa Inggris. Namun, bukan berarti kita tak dapat menguasainya! Berikut adalah rangkuman dari ke-16 Tenses Bahasa Inggris dan tips belajar bahasa inggris untuk menguasainya.

Baca Juga: Belajar Tenses Lewat Video

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tenses1 Simple Present Tense
Rumus Subject + Verb 1 (present form)
Kata Sinyal always, every, never, normally, often, sometimes, usually, seldom
Kalimat Positif He always works very hard in the company
Kalimat Negatif He does not work very hard in the company.
Kalimat Tanya Does he work very hard in the company?
Yes, he does. / No, he does not.

Simple present tense adalah bentuk tense yang paling umum digunakan. Bentuk ini biasanya digunakan untuk menunjukan fakta, kebiasaan, dan kejadian yang terjadi pada saat ini.

Baca Juga: Simple Present Tense

tenses2 Present Continuous Tense

Rumus Subject + am/is/are + Verb -ing (continuous form)
Kata Sinyal at the moment, just now, now, right now, Listen!, Look!
Kalimat Positif Look! He is talking with his classmates.
Kalimat Negatif He is not playing computer games now.
Kalimat Tanya Is he playing computer games at the moment?
Yes, he is. / No, he is not.

Present continuous tense biasanya digunakan untuk membicarakan aksi yang sedang berlangsung saat pembicaraan sedang berlangsung atau bisa juga digunakan untuk rencana di masa depan.

Baca Juga: Present Continuous Tense

tenses1 Present Perfect Tense

Rumus Subject + has/have+ Verb III (past participle form)
Kata Sinyal already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now
Kalimat Positif He has already finished his homework.
Kalimat Negatif He has not been to Australia so far.
Kalimat Tanya Has he completed the arrangement for the coming event up to now?
Yes, he has. / No, he has not.

Present perfect tense menekankan pada hasil. Tense ini menunjukkan aksi yang masih sedang berlangsung atau baru saja selesai.

Baca Juga: Present Perfect Tense

tenses2 Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Rumus Subject + HAS/HAVE + BEEN + Verb -ing (continuous form)
Kata Sinyal for the past 5 years, how long …?, the whole week, since xxxx
Kalimat Positif He has been working here since 1996.
Kalimat Negatif He has not been speaking for the last 3 hours.
Kalimat Tanya Has he been playing the computer game all day?
Yes, he has. / No, he has not.

Present perfect continuous tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan aksi yang telah selesai pada suatu titik dimasa lampau atau aksi telah dimulai di masa lalu dan terus berlanjut sampai sekarang. Biasanya aksi tersebut ada durasi waktu tertentu dan ada relevansinya dengan kondisi sekarang.

tenses1 Simple Past Tense

Rumus Subject + Verb II (past form)
Kata Sinyal yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1996, last Thursday, this morning
Kalimat Positif Last year, he always worked until night.
Kalimat Negatif He did not go to school this morning.
Kalimat Tanya Did he pay the bill yesterday? Yes, he did. / No, he did not.

Simple past tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu kejadian yang terjadi di masa lampau.

Baca Juga: Simple Past Tense

tenses2 Past Continuous Tense

Rumus Subject + WAS/WERE + Verb -ing (continuous form)
Kata Sinyal when, while, as long as, at this time yesterday
Kalimat Positif He was speaking when I entered in room.
Kalimat Negatif He was not doing his homework at this time yesterday.
Kalimat Tanya Was he writing the letter to his parents when I was out last Tuesday?
Yes, he was. / No, he was not.

Past continuous tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan bahwa suatu aksi sedang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau. Biasanya ada dua kejadian di masa lampau dan satu kejadian menginterupsi kejadian yang lain. Kejadian yang sedang diinterupsi tersebut yang menggunakan past continuous tense.

Baca Juga: Past Continuous Tense

tenses1 Past Perfect Tense

Rumus Subject + HAD + Verb III (past participle form)
Kata Sinyal before yesterday, till three days ago, already, until that day
Kalimat Positif He had finished his designs before he went to work yesterday.
Kalimat Negatif He had not been a high school student until last year.
Kalimat Tanya Had he entered the company before he achieved his master degree in 1990?
Yes, he had. / No, he had not.

Past perfect tense digunakan untuk menunjukkan sebuah kejadian yang terjadi sebelum waktu tertentu di masa lampau dan lebih menekankan pada fakta daripada durasi.

Baca Juga: Past Perfect Tense

tenses2 Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Rumus Subject + HAD + BEEN + Verb -ing (continuous form)
Kata Sinyal for, since, the whole day, all day
Kalimat Positif He said that he had been working here for ten years.
Kalimat Negatif He was told that his teacher had been waiting for him since 2 p.m yesterday.
Kalimat Tanya Had he been speaking for the whole class before I entered?
Yes, he had. / No, he had not.

Past perfect continuous tense hampir serupa dengan past perfect tense. Digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu aksi yang terjadi di masa lalu dan telah selesai pada suatu titik waktu tertentu di masa lalu, tapi tense ini menekankan pada durasi kejadiannya.

tenses1 Simple Future Tense

Rumus Subject + “WILL/ BE GOING TO” + Verb (present form)
Kata Sinyal in a year, next …, tomorrow, next week, five days later
Kalimat Positif He is going to be journalist after he graduate next year.
Kalimat Negatif He will not play computer games anymore because he understand how harmful they are.
Kalimat Tanya Will he go to the cinema tomorrow with us?
Yes, he will. / No, he will not.

Simple Future tense mengindikasikan suatu aksi di masa yang akan datang dan tidak dapat dipengaruhi. Dapat juga digunakan untuk pembuatan keputusan di masa depan yang spontan atau asumsi yang berhubungan dengan masa yang akan datang. “Will” dan “be going to” merupakan 2 indikator umum pada tenses ini.

Baca Juga: Simple Future Tense

tenses2 Future Continuous Tense

Rumus Subject + “WILL/BE GOING TO” + “BE” + Verb (continuous form)
Kata Sinyal tomorrow morning, in one year
Kalimat Positif He will be delivering the speech to undergraduates at 3 p.m tomorrow afternoon.
Kalimat Negatif He will not be doing the task in the office this afternoon because he is sick.
Kalimat Tanya Will he be playing football next morning in the playground?

Yes, he will./ No, he will not.

Future continuous tense menunjukkan aksi yang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang dan aksi yang pasti akan terjadi dalam waktu dekat.

Baca Juga: Future Continuous Tense


tenses1
Future Perfect Tense

Rumus Subject + “WILL HAVE” + Verb III (past participle form)
Kata Sinyal by next Monday, in a week
Kalimat Positif He will have finished the task by next Monday.
Kalimat Negatif He will not have finished the given task by tomorrow evening.
Kalimat Tanya Will he have finished the task in a week?

Yes, he will./ No, he will not.

Future perfect tense menekankan pada aksi yang sudah berakhir pada waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang.

tenses2 Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Hampir sama dengan semua jenis perfect continuous tense, future perfect continuous tense merupakan serangkaian aksi yang terjadi sebelum waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang.

Rumus Subject + “WILL HAVE BEEN” + Verb-ing (continuous form)
Kata Sinyal for the last couple of hours, all day long
Kalimat Positif He will have been taking charge of the team for the next hour.
Kalimat Negatif He will not have been doing the task for the last couple of hours.
Kalimat Tanya Will he have been doing the research all day long? Yes, he will./ No, he will not.


tenses1
Past Future Tense

Rumus Subject + WOULD + Verb (present form)

Subject + WAS/WERE + GOING TO + Verb (Present Form)

Kata Sinyal
Kalimat Positif He said that he would leave in three days.
Kalimat Negatif He did not promise that he would buy you a new computer.
Kalimat Tanya Did you tell him when I would arrive? Yes, I did. / No, I did not.

Past future tense pada dasarnya digunakan dalam kalimat yang tidak langsung, dimana terdapat perubahan bentuk untuk menyesuaikan dengan rangkaian peristiwa yang ada.

tenses2 Past Future Continuous Tense

Rumus Subject + “SHOULD/WOULD BE” + Verb-ing (continuous form)
Kata Sinyal
Kalimat Positif I made a promise that I would be doing my homework all day long tomorrow.
Kalimat Negatif I did not tell anyone that I would be giving a speech to undergraduates for the next whole morning.
Kalimat Tanya Did you say that you would be working hard in the next week? Yes, I did / No, I did not.

Past future continuous tense menekankan pada serangkaian atau durasi sebuah aksi terjadi. Sebagai tambahan, ini juga biasanya digunakan pada kalimat tidak langsung.


tenses1
Past Future Perfect Tense

Rumus Subject + SHOULD/WOULD HAVE + Verb III (past participle form)
Kata Sinyal
Kalimat Positif He told the students that they should have finished the homework this morning.
Kalimat Negatif He said that he would not have made such a mistake if he had taken my advice.
Kalimat Tanya Did you say that you would have been a doctor in three years?
Yes, I did / No, I did not.

Terdapat 3 waktu dalam past future perfect yang terjadi di masa lalu. Menunjuk pada waktu yang akan datang, waktu tertentu di masa lalu, tetapi aksi yang terjadi harus sudah selesai sebelum waktu yang akan datang. Dan biasanya digunakan pada kalimat tidak langsung.

tenses2 Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Rumus Subject + WOULD HAVE BEEN + Verb -ing (continuous form)
Kata Sinyal
Kalimat Positif I heard that you should have been teaching here for ten years by this July.
Kalimat Negatif I did not know that he would have been working for the past three hours by that time.
Kalimat Tanya Would he have been explaining to the workers if he had made the information clear?
Yes, he would / No, he would not.

Past future perfect continuous tense merupakan bentuk tense yang cukup sulit. Namun, kamu dapat mempelajarinya dari past future perfect tense. Bedanya, past future perfect tense menekankan pada durasi waktu yang sudah berlalu dan hasil.

Sekarang kamu mengerti 16 tenses dalam bahasa Inggris? Teruslah berlatih agar kamu semakin mahir memahami keenambelas tenses ini.

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